Unit 35- Undertake Technical Adjustment of Images

1. Understand key issues relating to technical adjustment of images

1.1. Explain the principles of colour theory, colour mode and colour management

See the source image

Colour theory

A term used to describe the collection of rules and guidelines regarding the use of colour, especially in art, design, photography and more creative jobs.  A set of principles are used in which it creates harmonious colour combinations, which is colour theory. It’s about how and why some colours work well together to please the eye, while others don’t. Colour theory is built up of multiple components such as the colour wheel, colour harmonies and colour context.

The colour wheel

A colour wheel, in simple terms is a circle created to show different coloured sections used to show the relationships between different colours. It is well known that every colour created and produced can all be traced back to three basic colours which are named the primary colours. These three colours are red, yellow and blue. These three colours are known as primary colours, and can also not be made by mixing any other colours together to produce them.

See the source image

So we have three primary colours, which can be mixed together to produce secondary colours. As shown on the diagram at the very top and below, red and yellow can be mixed together to produce orange; yellow and blue mixed together produces green; and red and blue mixed together makes purple.

See the source image

The third step is combining primary and secondary colours to produce tertiary colours. Blue and green produce teal; green and yellow make chartreuse; yellow and orange become amber; orange and red become bermillion; red and purple make magenta; and finally purple and blue produce violet.

See the source image

 

Colour harmonies

See the source image

Complementary

Complementary colours are the ones opposite each other on the colour wheel. For example, red and green. As complementary colours are on the opposite side of the wheel to each other, this means they have a high contrast level when put together, as they create a vibrant appearance, making things stand out when used.

Analogous 

Analogous colour schemes use colours that are next to each other on the colour wheel, like above. These colours match well as they’re similar in shade also. It’s important to choose one colour to dominate, a second to support alongside a third colour as an accent.

Triad

Using colours that are evenly spaces around the colour wheel, is known as a triadic colour scheme. They tend to be vibrant and full of saturation. To use this scheme successfully, the colours should be carefully balanced, letting one colour dominate and the other two for accent.

Split complementary

This colour scheme includes a variation of the complementary colour scheme which I explained above. It uses a base colour, alongside two colours adjacent to it’s complement. Theres a strong visual contrast with this colour scheme.

Rectangular 

Four colours arranged into two complementary pairs are used for this colour scheme. A big tip when choosing this scheme is to pay attention to warm and cool colours, making a balance of the two temperatures.

Square

The final colour scheme is very similar to the rectangular scheme by using the same amount of colours, but all four are separated evenly around the wheel. This scheme also works best when one colour dominates.

Temperature

Warm and cool colors

 

The colour wheel can be divided into half, with warm colours on one side and cool on the other. We call it temperature, as one side includes warm colours and the other including colder colours. The diagram on the right shows the temperature split.

 

Colour mode

A colour mode can be changed which alters the way an image editing software programme such as photoshop saves the colour information. Below are a list of all the colour modes, as well as an image to show them all together.

Photoshop Examples of different color modes

Different color modes:

  1. RGB mode (millions of colors)
  2. CMYK mode (four-printed colors)
  3. Index mode (256 colors)
  4. Grayscale mode (256 grays)
  5. Bitmap mode (2 colors)

Colour management

CMS is short for a colour management system, which is a collection of software tools which are used to ensure colours remain the same on all devices and displaying equipment. Colours are dependent on devices and now that different devices use different technologies to produce colours, consistency in colour can be a challenge to maintain.

Bibliography

https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=colour%20theory&cbir=sbi&imageBin=&qs=n&form=QBIRMH&sp=-1&pq=colour%20theory&sc=8-13&sk=&cvid=9E9EC2D3BE154F2997260FC185110E0F

https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-color-theory-definition-basics-examples.html

https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-a-color-wheel-definition-types.html

http://www.tigercolor.com/color-lab/color-theory/color-theory-intro.htm

https://helpx.adobe.com/photoshop/using/color-modes.html

https://www.techopedia.com/definition/478/color-management-system-cms

1.2. Explain the importance of technical compatibility in images with specified requirements

See the source image

Image compatibility is important as it ensures images can be opened, displayed or edited. There are multiple file formats which all have different image sizes/quality, so if an image requires a specific size/quality it is important to consider the different file formats to which it is being saved as. Below are different file formats, as well as images to show the original saved as all the formats.

File Formats

  • JPEG – (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
  • GIF – (Graphics Interchange Format)
  • BMP
  • TIFF
  • PNG – (Portable Network Graphics)

At Yep, we deal with thousands of images a day. We always save our images as a JPEG format which is short for Joint Photographic Experts Group. This is the most popular file format used. JPEG files lose some information from the original image when saved as it discards most of the information in order to keep the image file size small.

To make sure my produced images meet the requirements of both the manager and parents/schools, I have to ensure I save the images at the highest JPEG quality I can (for example: in Photoshop I save my JPEG’s at the highest, 12).

Bibliography

https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=technical%20compatibility%20in%20images&cbir=sbi&imageBin=&qs=n&form=QBIRMH&sp=-1&pq=technical%20compatibility%20in%20images&sc=0-33&sk=&cvid=4E11635335504C68ABDEC1AC1154E2AC

https://1stwebdesigner.com/image-file-types/

1.3. Explain the effect of image pixel dimensions, resolution and bit depth on file size

Pixel Dimensions

The horizontal and vertical measurements of an image is expressed in pixels, which is known as pixel dimensions. At Yep, we use photoshop and lightroom each day, which we have to make sure we have correctly set the canvas sizes to a high resolution with the correct DPI.

Image result for image pixels

Resolution

The detail an image holds, is called the image resolution. Having a higher resolution means the image will have more detail, and vice versa. Resolution refers to the number of pixels in an image. Images which have a lower resolution appear blurry due to there being fewer pixels. This means the pixels are larger when there’s less of them to make the image. At Yep we have to make sure the images are saved at a high resolution to make them as clear as possible and less pixelated so the customers get a the best quality image we can give.

Image result for image resolution

 

File Size

The amount of space a file takes up on a storage device such as a computer, is known as the file size. They can be measured in bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes and more. Images with more pixels produce more detail visible, making them require more storage space to store as it’s of a higher quality. Different file formats such as JPEG, GIF, PNG and TIFF, can affect the file size.

image-size-chart-kb-mb-gbImage result for file size

 

Bit Depth

Bit depth is referred to the colour information of an image. Meaning, the higher the bit depth of an image, the higher the amount of colours it can store. For example, you can have an image which is a 1 bit image, only c=storing 2 colours, only being able to store one or two values (0- white, 1- black). When the bit depth increases which is shown below, the file size will also increase due to more colours being stores for each pixel. An increase in the bit depth, improves the quality of the image due to more colours.

Image result for image bit depth

Bibliography

http://preservationtutorial.library.cornell.edu/intro/intro-03.html

https://digital-photography-school.com/understand-pixels-resolution-resize-photoshop/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image_resolution

https://www.computerhope.com/jargon/f/filesize.htm

https://etc.usf.edu/techease/win/images/what-is-bit-depth/

1.4. Explain the importance of having accurate technical and descriptive metadata

See the source image

Metadata definition

“Metadata is data that describes other data. Meta is a prefix that in most information technology usages means “an underlying definition or description.”

In simple terms, metadata characterizes data and is used to provide documentation. There are many types of metadata such as descriptive, structural, administrative, reference and statistical. It describes data which contains specific information such as type, length, textual and more.

The purpose of metadata

A range of metadata can be contained in all image file formats such as JPEG, TIFF, PSD and others. Image files contain metadata which provides information about each specific image. Below is a list of information each image holds.

  • The file name
  • The file format
  • Dimensions of the images
  • Resolution
  • Colour depth
  • Times and dates for the image when last updated
  • Camera settings for when the original image was taken

Below I have attached an image as an example of the information images hold that we have come in.

Capture.JPG

 

Importance of Technical Metadata

Technical metadata describes information about technology. Information such as database ownership, physical characteristics of database, performance tuning and more. It is automatically generated by the camera. This means it includes camera details, as well as camera settings. Camera settings such as aperture, shutter speed, ISO number, focal depth and more.

Technical metadata needs to be accurate because the metadata is required for identification and copyright protection. We use this finding digital images by searching on the system and for tracking purposes.

Importance of Descriptive Metadata

This type of metadata describes a resource for purposes such as discovery and identification. Information about the visual content, and is used to find, identify and understand images. It includes elements such as headline, title, captions as well as keywords. This also is used for searching image files.

Bibliography

https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=%20metadata&qs=n&form=QBIR&sp=-1&pq=metadata&sc=8-8&sk=&cvid=5E5C82F152B44D598C10B15672AE8B73

https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/metadata

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metadata

https://learndatamodeling.com/blog/technical-metadata/

http://marciazeng.slis.kent.edu/metadatabasics/types.htm

1.5. Identify the relative merits of appropriate equipment, software, methods and material for different imaging requirements

There are multiple equipment software, methods and material for imaging requirements. Below I will be explaining the software we use at Yep.

Adobe Photoshop

Image result for photoshop

Adobe Photoshop is a graphics designing application and an image editing software which has been developed and manufactured by Adobe systems, allowing you to manipulate, crop, resize, colour correct and edit even further on a digital image. In the Lab department, we use Photoshop everyday. As editors, we use photoshop to crop images, swap heads when there’s group photos, make our square shots and more. On every shoot that comes in, photoshop is used.

Adobe Photoshop is an extremely popular software programme used by many people in the creative industry. There are many pros known for this programme such as Multitude of photo correction , manipulation tools and 3D capability.

Adobe Lightroom

Image result for lightroom

Lightroom was also developed and manufactured by Adobe Systems, allowing you to import, view, organise, tag and edit digital images. Lightroom is the first programme we use in the Lab to start editing the shoots. We import all the images into a folder on Lightroom, then start choosing the images we want to use. For example, on individual shoots, there are normally 3 photos for each child, we flag out the ones we don’t want leaving us with the best image for that child. We can then colour correct our images, which we use a colour board for. The photographers take a shot of the colour board so we can adjust the skin tones acceptably.

Adobe Bridge

Image result for adobe bridge

We use Bridge when doing square shots. We only use it to select all the cluster we need for each class, and then open them in photoshop. Using Bridge allows us to open all the clusters on the same page in Photoshop instead of importing them all on to separate pages then having to copy them all onto one.

Bibliography

http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/Photoshop.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Lightroom

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Bridge

1.6. Explain the reasons for using different file formats for digital images, identifying the differences between them

Image result for file formats

Please refer to Unit 35, 1.2 for more information on file formats.

Below I have explained the reasons for using different file formats and also identifying the differences between them.

The difference between Vector and Raster

Vector Image Files- These images are more flexible and are constructed using proportional formulas rather than pixels. File formats such as EPS, AI and PDF are best for creating graphics that require resizing.

Raster Image Files- A series of pixels or individual blocks are constructed to form an image, which are called raster images. Examples of raster image extensions are JPEG, GIF and PNG’s.

JPEG

jpg

JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, and is the most popular image file format used. They’re commonly known for their ‘lossy’ compression, meaning the quality of the images decreases as the file size decreases. JPEG’s are normally applied for the processing and storage of full colour images.

Advantages of JPEG image format

  •  This format is extremely portable.
  •  Compatible with many hardware devices such as printers, making it easy to print JPEG files.
  •  JPEG’s can be used to store high-resolution fast-moving images.
  • Able to be stored quickly from a camera storage device.
  • The sizing can be easily reduced and compressed, making it suitable for transferring images over the web.

Disadvantages of JPEG images format

  •  Compression technique is a ‘lossy’ compression.
  • Reduced quality of image.
  • Can’t support layered images.

Conclusion

JPEG image formats are most suitable for images you wish to want small sized, portable images and irrespective of the image quality. For higher quality images, PNG and GIF should be considered.

PNG

png

A PNG image format stands for Portable Network Graphics and is a file format to compress images. With a PNG format, you can control the degree of transparency/opacity. They’re the perfect image format for interactive documents (for example: web pages). Although they’re a low resolution file format, they’re known as ‘lossless’ meaning you can edit them without losing the quality.

Advantages of PNG image format

  • The quality isn’t lost when compressed.
  • Format is suitable for storage of intermediate versions of the image.
  • This file format supports a large number of colours.
  • Possible to work with layers.

Disadvantages of PNG image format

  •  Doesn’t support animation.
  • Unable to store multiple images in one file.

GIFF

GIF

GIFF (Graphic Interchange Format) storing files of colour graphics, a standard compressed file format used for pictures. This file format allows you to use a series of separated frames (images) together which creates a type of animation. These are used for things such as banner ads.

Advantages of GIFF image format

  •  GIFF file size is small.
  • No additional software is required in order to view.
  • Images don’t lose quality when compressed.

Disadvantages of GIFF image format

  •  Oldest image format.
  • Larger file size than PNG format.

TIFF

tiff

TIFF stands for Tag Image File Format, developed in 1986 and is a very common format for exchanging raster graphics images to and from application programmes.

Advantages of TIFF image format

  •  No data is lost due to the format not be compressed, quality isn’t decreased.
  • High quality images.

Disadvantages of TIFF image format

  • Sizing of image isn’t compatible with the web.
  • Due to the file size being large, sending this file format through email proves difficult.

PDF

pdf

Portable Document Format, commonly known as a PDF, is a file format which captures all elements of a printed document. This file format is most commonly used for documents such as magazine articles, product brochures and flyers. PDF is associated with “paperless office” and commonly used for printing and designing.

Advantages of PDF image format

  •  A PDF file format can be opened on any device.
  • This file format takes up only a small amount of space on your hard drive.

Disadvantages of PDF image format

  •  PDF files can only be edited in specialised programmes.
  • Text in PDF files are perceived as a picture, which means it’s more difficult to work with.

AI

ai

AI (Adobe Illustrator), is a file format which is developed by Adobe Systems. This programme is a vector graphics editor, mainly used for creating company logos, for any promotional usage and print media.

Advantages of AI 

  •  It’s scalable.
  • Creates files in manageable sizes.
  •  Can create print and web graphics.

Disadvantages of AI

  • Limited support for raster graphics.
  • Requires space.

 

Bibliography

https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=different%20file%20formats&cbir=sbi&imageBin=&qs=n&form=QBIR&sp=-1&pq=different%20file%20formats&sc=8-22&sk=&cvid=BCA7023312DA4BA78D8D9FEFEA9EDA65

https://blog.hubspot.com/insiders/different-types-of-image-files

https://bytescout.com/blog/2014/06/pros-and-cons-of-jpeg-image-compression.html

https://searchmicroservices.techtarget.com/definition/PNG-Portable-Network-Graphics

https://www.logaster.com/blog/png/

https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Giff

https://www.online-sciences.com/computer/animated-gifs-graphic-interchange-format-advantages-and-disadvantages/

http://www.graphicrating.com/2009/05/01/gif-jpg-and-png-file-formats-pros-and-cons/

https://www.bitpipe.com/tlist/Tag-Image-File-Format.html

https://www.motocms.com/blog/en/pros-cons-types-image-extensions/

https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/Portable-Document-Format-PDF

https://www.logaster.com/blog/pdf/

https://brandongaille.com/12-adobe-illustrator-advantages-and-disadvantages/

2. Be able to develop an editing approach to the technical adjustment of images

2.1. Agree with relevant parties the image editing workflow and procedures

See the source image

At Yep, we have multiple workflow’s for different production outputs. Below I’m going to show and explain the editing workflow and procedure for ‘MPG-SQ’ which we do in the spring-summer terms. As an apprentice in the Lab department, I can now complete the whole workflow from the images coming in, to making/printing the proofs, and also printing orders when they come into the building.

First we import the images from the photographers off dropbox. I then import them into Adobe Lightroom, where I colour correct and pick one image of each cluster.

Step 1.

This first shot shows me importing images into Lightroom ready to colour correct and pick.

Capture 1 for lightroom

Step 2.

Below is a picture that the photographers took of someone holding a colour board where the clusters will be taken. We use the eyedropper tool to select the most neutral colour to adjust the skin tones. Below I have set it as a before and after to show the difference in adjustment.

capture 2 for lightroom

Step 3.

The next step once colour correction is applied, is to synchronise the settings to all the images. This is done by selecting the colour board image which was used to colour correct, then when holding down ‘Ctrl’ or ‘shift’ to select the other images you want to also colour correct with the same settings, and clicking the ‘sync’ button.

capture 3 for lightroom

Step 4.

Once colour corrected and adjusted appropriately, the next stage is to start picking the images you want to keep. For Square shots we keep one of each cluster. By pressing the ‘x’ key, it allows you to temporarily hide the images you don’t want. 

capture 4 for lightroom

Step 5.

Below is a shot to show the next step which is exporting the chosen images. Once all images left are selected, you need to right click and export them.

capture 5 for lightroom

Step 6.

This next stage is the first photoshop step. You need to drag all images exported into photoshop. This is where you paint round the edge with white, and then colour dodge closer to the people.

capture 1 for photoshop

Step 7.

After all images are ready,  you select each cluster for one class, and place them together in a photoshop page, then crop to a 10×8 aperture. 

1232 Earhart

On completion in the LAB of the shots, we have them checked by the general manager to ensure anything we have missed can be changed before being sent off.  Once our images are created and have been checked, we send JPEG copies over to the schools for their confirmation. Sometimes we get some back asking for clusters to be changed around or wording to be adjusted. Once everything is set and the school are happy, we then proceed to making proofs to send to the school for parents.

Bibliography

https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=workflow&cbir=sbi&imageBin=&qs=n&form=QBIR&sp=-1&pq=workflow&sc=8-8&sk=&cvid=F7E15D33FFF24C7EBCFC427E6B1470FA

2.2. Select the most suitable hardware and software for the image editing

In this section, I will be explaining the most suitable software for image editing in the creative industry, and what we use at YEP.

The two most used editing software programmes we use at YEP, are Adobe Photoshop and Lightroom. For more information, refer to Unit 35, 1.5.

Adobe Photoshop

See the source image

Adobe Photoshop is an image editing software which was developed and manufactured by Adobe Systems, and is the most used editing software. This magnificent software allows you to do multiple things which is very useful for us at YEP. We use it to manipulate, crop, resize, mask layers, retouch, remove objects, colour correct and more on all the digital images we edit. This programme is very helpful to us photographers and graphic designers. Photoshop allows us to export images as a specific file format most suitable for us.

Adobe Lightroom

Adobe Photoshop Lightroom Classic CC icon.svg

Adobe Lightroom was also developed by Adobe Systems, initially released in 2007. This programme allows importing/saving, viewing, organising, tagging, editing and more on digital images. When editing in Lightroom, images are always non-destructive by keeping the original image and the edits applied saved separately. This highly recommended image editing software is suitable for desktop, web and mobile. It allows you to crop & straighten, improve lighting and colour correct, remove content and many more. We use Lightroom to edit and pick images, to then export them ready for the next stages which we do in Photoshop.

 

Other Editing software programmes

 

Adobe Illustrator

See the source image

AI (Adobe Illustrator) was also developed by Adobe Systems. This programme is a vector graphics editor, mainly used for creating company logos, for any promotional usage and print media. It is very popular with artists and graphic designers. As an editor, I don’t use Illustrator as I don’t normally create illustrations.

Adobe Bridge

Adobe Bridge

Adobe Bridge is a software application which was created and released by Adobe Systems and can batch rename and help with organisation. It also supports editing digital images. We only use Bridge at YEP when making our square shots. We use it to import into Photoshop. We select the clusters for a class then open them into photoshop which allows all 6 clusters to be on the same page. If we were to select them and drag them into photoshop they would open on separate pages.

Bibliography

http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/Photoshop.html

https://www.adobe.com/products/photoshop.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Lightroom

http://dictionary.sensagent.com/Adobe%20Bridge/en-en/

2.3. Retrieve all relevant material from image sources as required

When sourcing images, I often have to check the existing metadata for details (especially pertaining to copyright). This is part of all the lab workers duties in which  avoiding legal problems.  At Yep, we don’t often use other images from the internet or other systems. We mainly use images taken by our photographers for the company. The graphic department create brochures and other pieces of work which the directors will inform the department once any RAW material or images are ready to use.

Bibliography

2.4 Import retrieved images into the editing software

See the source image

I have attached some screenshots of the different ways in which you can import images into Photoshop. Below are the two ways I used to open images/files into Photoshop. The first screenshot shows me finding the image I want to open into Photoshop, right clicking it then selecting ‘Open with’ and then ‘Adobe Photoshop’. The screenshot below shows opening Photoshop first, then selecting ‘File’, ‘Open…’ and manually finding the image/file you wish to open into Photoshop. Another way I use a lot is to select the images/files and dragging them into Photoshop. This opens them up on individual pages.

print

See the source image

I have attached some screenshots in which you can import images into Lightroom. Click ‘Import’, and then select the folder you wish to import. Another way to import images/folders is to select everything you want and drag into library mode in Lightroom.

1

 

2

Bibliography

https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=importing%20images&cbir=sbi&imageBin=&qs=n&form=QBIR&sp=-1&pq=importing%20images&sc=8-16&sk=&cvid=F986965BFA5E46A48C46F442CB2D6137

2.5. Check the visual and technical compatibility of the elements to be combined in the editing process

When all the images come in for a school, it is my job to start editing in Lightroom and Photoshop. For example, when editing MPG shots, we have to complete head swaps. The photographers take around 4-6 images per class, in which we choose the best image with the least amount of head swaps. Once the main base image is picked, I then go through and try to swap children heads which aren’t looking in the base image but are in other images. I compete this by using the layer mask tool in Adobe Photoshop. The layer mask controls the tranparency of the layer.

In the editing process, it is important to check that what you’re working on is compatible with where you want to use it. For example saving in the correct file formats  and correct sizing. If I am unsure about anything when saving or editing my images, I always make a copy of the original so if the schools ask for a different size for comp copies, I am able to re-crop from the original save. On the wet lab in the Lab department, it is important all images printed through that machine are saved as JPEG file formats. When orders come in, I am ready to sort and pic the images ordered, ready to place onto the printers folders. When MPG-SQ’s come in, there’s two different sizes so I have to copy the files and crop the other size. It is important to make a copy and not crop the original files otherwise you will have to go through the orders again and find the images. Below is an MPG-SQ proof to show the different sizes/options.

 

beech-000004-1.jpg

 

2.6. Identify how to treat incompatible elements, following workplace procedures and relevant guidelines

See the source image

In this section I am going to be discussing the ways I treated incompatible elements during editing process, by following my workplace procedures and relevant guidelines.

For example, if a file format is not correct, I would open up the file and save as another file format. This has occurred before where I sent over a PSD file instead of  a JPEG because I had forgot to save the file as both a PSD and JPEG. I opened up the file in photoshop, and went to file, save as and saved as a JPEG as well as the PSD file.

Another reason an element may be incompatible could be due to the colour mode of a document, which can be changed in photoshop, by going to ‘image’, ‘mode’ and then selecting the appropriate colour mode. Below is a screenshot to show the steps and the correct colour mode we use at YEP.

Screen Shot 2019-04-30 at 10.36.47.png

Similar to the reason above, I am able to change the file size if I keep the original file before cropping a copy. To change the file size I would go to ‘image’ , ‘image size’ and then save as a copy.

Bibliography

https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=guidelines&cbir=sbi&imageBin=&qs=n&form=QBIR&sp=-1&pq=guidelines&sc=8-10&sk=&cvid=0C575A7DB5804CFBB876EA85F9DCC98D

3. Be able to produce image files to meet the client’s requirements

3.1. Produce appropriate edited images to meet all the client’s requirements and workplace standards

Below I will be explaining the requirements and standards I must adhere to in the workplace and how to meet the needs of clients.

Meeting the needs of clients

It is important to respect clients wishes and try our hardest to meet their requirements. Below are some useful tips to ensure this.

  •  Listen carefully to what they’re saying and put all your focus onto them.
  •  It is important to remain pleasant towards clients, eve if they’re not towards you.
  • Be careful when handing concerns or complaints.
  •  Accept changes they wish to make and try your best to support their ideas.
  • Always make notes and be organised so you can remember clients and information. It is also easy to find work if everything is organised.

Requirements and standards in the workplace

  •  Ensuring if editing has taken place, everything has been checked so that nothing is out of place.
  • Ensuring any images are of good quality such as high resolution.
  • Images are saved in the correct format.

Example

For my example, I’m going to follow through with the project in Unit 35, 2.1. On completion for the Square shots and MPG’s, we create copy which is low resolution. This enables us to send over via email to the schools, all the images to be checked. Below I have attached screenshots to show how we create the low resolution images for emailing.

Below shows a screenshot of an action I have in Photoshop. I created this action to make it quick and easy when making all my images into low res files.

capture 1 for low res

To set up the action, this is how we make low res images. By going into ‘image’ then ‘image size’.

capture 2 for low res

Below shows all the low res sizes for each product we make.Section 18 -1 - CopySection 18 -1

Bibliography

https://www.legalsecretaryjournal.com/meeting_the_needs_of_clients

3.2. Produce preliminary proofs, discussing and agreeing any further editing with the client

This section doesn’t directly relate to my job, however some schools request us to send over pans, squares and mpg’s via email for them to confirm before we create proofs which get sent to the school; we also send if we haven’t been given the class names or are unsure of anything with the image. I would produce a low resolution copy for the images to send over as a small file size with some notes attached, and send this to the general manager who deals directly with the schools.

Before we have the images from the photographers, the general manager calls the schools up to confirm details and to make sure they were happy with the day and the photographers. This call normally gives us the information we need for the Lab when editing, but sometimes there are complications with the shoot that we weren’t aware of before editing the images.

Bibliography

3.3. Liaise with colleagues and/or clients as necessary to resolve any identified problems & 3.4. Carry out any further editing to produce final image files

See the source image

As an apprentice in the lab, I don’t  directly liaise with clients however I do send an email to the general manager who takes it further by contacting the clients via telephone or email. I speak face to face with the general manager to explain the problem I am having with either editing the images or finding the images, so she understands the problem. I then send an email to her providing the image with the problem and writing a detailed explanation. Laura will then either forward my email with her comments attached too, or will give the client a call if it’s urgent.

Below is a screenshot of a previous email I sent to Laura with a problem.

11.JPG

Bibliography

https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=resolve%20any%20identified%20problems%20&cbir=sbi&imageBin=&qs=n&form=QBIR&sp=-1&pq=resolve%20any%20identified%20problems%20&sc=0-32&sk=&cvid=DA73794FBD4B4C5FB75F70190986927A

4. Be able to save and store image files

4.1. Append image metadata in accordance with workplace systems and copyright legislation

See the source image

 

Following our strict workplace procedure at Yep, I was instructed to append the image metadata with the relevant copyright legislation information before I send proof cards back to the school, orders back to the school and upload online. We have to be incredibly careful at Yep due to having thousands of children and parents data on the system. When editing before uploading onto the system, I have the opportunity to input new or amend old metadata.

The Photographers have to be DBS checked before working at the schools, which is a record of a person’s criminal convictions and cautions and is carried out by the Disclosure and Barring Service.

Below is a screenshot of data visible from our photographs.

111.JPG

Bibliography

https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=copyright%20legislation%20&cbir=sbi&imageBin=&qs=n&form=QBIR&sp=-1&pq=copyright%20legislation%20&sc=8-22&sk=&cvid=DFF6754F3F024915BCB907851926FC4E

DBS Checks: What you need to know

4.2. Save the edited image files in the correct format ready for outputting or storage

There are multiple file formats which I have written about previously, refer to Unit 35 for more details about the different file formats.

  1. JPEG (or JPG) – Joint Photographic Experts Group
  2. PNG – Portable Network Graphics
  3. GIF – Graphics Interchange Format
  4. TIFF – Tagged Image File
  5. PSD – Photoshop Document
  6. PDF – Portable Document Format
  7. EPS – Encapsulated Postscript
  8. AI – Adobe Illustrator Document
  9. INDD – Adobe Indesign Document
  10. RAW – Raw Image Formats

At Yep, in the Lab department I mainly use 2 types of file format when saving my work. I use PSD and JPEG to save my work. I use JPEG’s for printing and sending in emails, as well as PSD files so I can open and either re edit or change things so that the images isn’t flattened and I would have to start again if something needed changing by the manager/school/parents, providing the ability to edit these elements further if it become necessary.

Screen Shot 2019-04-30 at 09.27.16.png

Above is an image which shows the two different file formats I save as in Photoshop after creating my square images. Below is a screenshot image that shows the next stage after saving as a JPEG, which is the quality you want to save as. I always save at ’12’ which is the highest quality for my MPEG images, but when I create alternative contact sheets, I save as a ‘2’ so the file size is smaller to send via email, as well as the parents not being able to take the image from the contact sheet for free instead of ordering.

It is also possible to change file size in Photoshop when saving, for example we use this to make low resolution images for importing into our Yep Import programme. For example, we copy all our final JPEG images for the school we created squares for, we paste them into a folder named ‘Low Resolution’, then import them all into Photoshop. I’ve made an action within photoshop to follow these instructions by just pressing a play button which makes it a lot quicker to make. If I was to do this manually, I would go into Image, image size and then choose the correct sizing in which we have in a booklet (which are below).

Section 18 -1 - Copy

Section 18 -1

Bibliography

https://blog.hubspot.com/insiders/different-types-of-image-files

5. Understand legislation, ethics and business requirements relevant to technical adjustment of images

5.1. Identify key aspects of legislation relevant to technical adjustment of images

See the source image

 

In this section I am going to be identifying key aspects of legislation relevant to the technical adjustment of images, within my workplace at YEP.

Copyright

Copyright Definition:

‘the exclusive right to make copies, license, and otherwise exploit a literary, musical, or artistic work, whether printed, audio, video, etc.: works granted such right by law on or after January 1, 1978, are protected for the lifetime of the author or creator and for a period of 70 years after his or her death.’

Copyright is a main aspect of legislation to technical adjustment of images. It is incredibly important to have the owners permission to edit a copyrighted image. It is the law that the owner of the work has the right to say how other people can use it. A copyright is automatically assigned to all images created, in the UK, meaning you can only use an image if you have the copyright-holder’s permission. If attribution is a requirement upon publishing an image, it is important to make sure the name of the photographer and copyright holder features alongside the image which is clear to the public.

Any images used which have been found on the web can only be used when the following occurs…

  • You know the Copyright Term has expired
  • You have permission from the copyright owner for exactly what you want to do with it (for example, to display it on your website) – this may be in the form of something like a license you purchase from a picture library or a Creative Commons License
  • You use the images for specific purposes known in law as permitted acts

Once permission has been granted by the copyright owner, it is important to consider the following…

  •  To state the name of the photographer
  • Add copyright into the metadata
  • The license it is listed under

Bibliography

https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=technical+adjustment+of+images&form=HDRSC2&first=1&cw=1129&ch=863

https://www.dictionary.com/browse/copyright

5.2. Identify relevant aspects of health and safety legislation

See the source image

At Yep, my role as an apprentice is to use editing software in order to edit and finalise the images/products. I use Adobe Lightroom and Photoshop to do this, meaning I am using computers all day. There are loads of health problems associated with regular use of computers, some more obvious than others.

Employer Regulations stated by the law

  • provide tiltable screens
  • provide anti-glare screen filters
  • provide adjustable chairs
  • provide foot supports
  • make sure lighting is suitable
  • make sure workstations are not cramped
  • plan work at a computer so that there are frequent breaks
  • pay for appropriate eye and eyesight tests by an optician

One health and safety issue that is very commonly associated with a small office environment are loose wires across the floor, which we keep covered by floor cord covers. This prevents trips and any wires being pulled out from computers or other machinery.

Bibliography

https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=health%20and%20safety%20legislation%20&cbir=sbi&imageBin=&qs=n&form=QBIR&sp=-1&pq=health%20and%20safety%20legislation%20&sc=8-30&sk=&cvid=A73E0A67C836446D80CBB7D5CB1B74EF

https://worksmart.org.uk/health-advice/health-and-safety/employer-duties/what-are-main-health-and-safety-regulations

https://www.atl.org.uk/advice-and-resources/health-and-safety/health-and-safety-legislation

http://www.hse.gov.uk/legislation/index.htm

https://www.bbc.com/bitesize/guides/zkyg87h/revision/1

5.3. Take appropriate action to minimise potential risks and hazards

See the source image

It’s important to prevent workplace hazards as much as possible. To control workplace hazards, it is best to follow some steps…

  • Carry out a risk assessment, which will identify the hazards.
  • Evaluate all risks.
  • Record and review hazards.

Everyone following the same health and safety procedure reduces risks in the workplace. Everyone using computers should make sure they’re switched off at the end if the day to minimise potential risks such as overheating or causing fires.

There are multiple electrical wires that are all around the office, especially in the Lab department where the majority of the computers are as well as two large printers. Ensuring these wires are kept covered with floor cord covers reduces the risk of trips and wires being pulled out of machinery. Minimising the risk of fire hazards, I keep liquids away from my computer and the printers to ensure no spillages.

Bibliography

https://www.bing.com/images/search?q=risks%20and%20hazards&cbir=sbi&imageBin=&qs=n&form=QBIR&sp=-1&pq=risks%20and%20hazards&sc=8-17&sk=&cvid=80E8C882E0494954BE78DEC292EDE7D7

Identifying workplace hazards

5.4. Identify aspects of codes of ethics/conduct relevant to technical adjustment of images

See the source image

This also links to copyright which is discussed in the subheadings below. When searching for images to use or edit, it is important not to use images which could offend clients. At Yep, working in the Lab as an editor, I heavily rely on Adobe Lightroom and Photoshop to edit the images that come in from the photographers. When editing the images, it is important to ensure I adopt the relevant codes of ethics and conduct.

It is important to make sure when I’m editing images in Photoshop, to not remove anything like a scar or anything religious, thinking it’s some pen or toothpaste marks. I need to make sure my images are correctly manipulated so that no offence is taken. Therefore one very important code of ethics aspect relevant to this is that editing should maintain the integrity of the photographic images content and context.

Bibliography

5.5. Recognise any potential legal issues arising from the nature of the images to be produced

See the source image

There’s a law in which it is not permitted to copy and paste photos found on the internet. Below I have explained in more detail about copyright, which is the most significant potential legal issue we would encounter. This could result in the litigation against the company.

At YEP, for example in the graphics department, using an image from Shutter Stock on Google, without purchasing it, is a serious legal issue to consider before I edit an image to post on the web. This is very commonly known as copyright infringement because it is using someone else’s property without their permission.

Bibliography

Law and Etiquette for Using Photos and Images Found Online

5.6. Attribute intellectual property and copyright credits in accordance with copyright legislation

See the source image

Copyright Definition: 

“the exclusive and assignable legal right, given to the originator for a fixed number of years, to print, publish, perform, film, or record literary, artistic, or musical material.”

It is the law that the owner of the work has all the right to say how other people can use it. A copyright is automatically assigned to all images created, in the UK, meaning you can only use an image if you have the copyright-holder’s permission. If attribution is a requirement upon publishing an image, it is important to make sure the name of the photographer and copyright holder features alongside the image which is clear to the public.

At YEP, when sending alternative images over to parents, we use Lightroom contact sheet to select all the images and then import the contact sheet into Photoshop. We then use the text tool in Photoshop to write ‘YEP PROOF 2019’ with a decreased opacity level. This stops the parents from using the images without paying, but it is still visible for the parent to choose the image they wish to order.

Bibliography

https://techterms.com/definition/copyright

Law and Etiquette for Using Photos and Images Found Online

5.7. Maintain the confidentiality of photographic material as required

See the source image

Typical occasions when it is incredibly important to maintain the confidentiality of photographic material are when images feature children without the consent of a guardian, personal information such as names, license plates, addresses, phone numbers etc. When we photograph at schools, there are some pupils that have child data protection, for example with our square shots and MPG’s there is an image taken with all children, and the same photo taken without the child who is under protection. The image with the child in is only sent to that child, the other image is what all the other children in that class will receive.

For the graphics purpose, if anything such as number plates, house addresses and other confidential information is placed out to the online world, it breaches privacy. Using programmes such as Photoshop and other editing software, with tools such as the clone tool and spot healing tool, anything that shows someone’s identity details can be removed.

Bibliography

5.8. Comply with all business/organisation systems and procedures

See the source image

Following strict image editing workflow throughout all work procedures, is incredibly important for YEP.

My image editing workflow process at YEP involves me using previously saved templates from previous years, which already have the correct fonts and sizes, colour mode, filters, tones etc. This saves time and ensures no mistakes are made that go back to the school or online. I have to always receive confirmation from the general manager before anything goes out the door. This is to make sure the standard we produce meets the clients standards and so that our general manager doesn’t get any complaints from the schools or parents.

In the Lab, it is important to have two file formats saved for our Square or MPG shots. We make sure we save as a PSD file format with all head swaps and edits, as well as a JPEG format that we send on proofs and for printing orders. Everyone in the business has to follow these guidelines to ensure high efficiency and efficacy of the company.

Bibliography

SlideShare: 5 Steps to Ensure Compliance with Policies and Procedures

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